abount paging and swapping

(or Pagefiles vs. Swap / Swapfiles)


Source: lkml.iu.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/9907.2/0462.html

Linux will swap existing pages to disk on a per process basis. In principle, a process might allocate 1 Gb of buffer, but always be using the same one physical page.

Source: stackoverflow.com

The advantage of this is that it is relatively simple to grasp and memory for a program is always allocated contiguously, the downside is that performance on a machine can become absolutely abysmal when the system ends up in a state where things are constantly swapping. The algorithm also involves the repeated swapping in and out of data that will not be used in the foreseeable future.


With swapping, parts of memory which are not in use are written to disk; this enables one to run several programs whose total memory consumption is greater than the amount of physical memory. When a program makes a request for a part of memory that was written to the disk, that part has to be loaded into memory. To make room for it, another part has to be written to the disk (effectively the two parts swap places – hence the name). This “extension” of physical memory is generally known as “virtual memory”.


Modern systems use both paging and swapping, and pages are what is being swapped in and out of memory.


Source: techarp.com

In contrast, paging files function by moving “pages” of a program from system memory into the paging file. These pages are 4KB in size. The entire program does not get swapped wholesale into the paging file.

While swapping occurs when there is heavy demand on the system memory, paging can occur preemptively. This means that the operating system can page out parts of a program when it is minimized or left idle for some time.

Swapfiles were used in old iterations of Microsoft Windows, prior to Windows 95. From Windows 95 onwards, all Windows versions use only paging files.

Source: helpdeskgeek.com

Windows 8 supports both paging and swapping. Paging will hold items that haven’t been accessed in a long time whereas swapping holds items that were recently taken out of memory. The items in pagingfile may not be accessed again for a long time whereas the items in swapfile might be accessed much sooner.


  1. “swapping” means put a whole program / process to swapspace on disk, while during “paging” only pages of memory are put onto disk (page = 4kb)
  2. because of its granularity, paging is often more efficient than swapping out the whoule process
  3. both mechanism can lead to performance degradation because content must be read out of multiple time slower disk storage instead of memory
  4. Windows 8 has both, pagefile and swapfile; the c:\swapfile.sys is used for the apps only

Deploy ONE Certificate to MANY user’s personal cert store


Using Group Policies, you can import Certificates of Root Authorities or other Trusted Certificates. It’s also possible to use auto enrollment to deploy Certificates to Users, if an internal enterprise CA is used to handle the requests. But you cannot deploy one single standalone Certificate with private key to many users.


This can only be done using a script, ran using GPO’s or in an existing login script – if there’s still one in place.


Use this command to import a PKCS#12 file (*.pfx or *.p12) into user’s Personal Certificate store.

certutil -importpfx -f -user -p "test" test.p12 NoRoot

Put your private key’s passwort after Parameter “-p”; in my example, the password was “test” and the PKCS#12 file is called test.p12.