Configuring VTP on a Cisco Switch

The VLAN Trunking Protocol is a very helpful Tool if you’re too lazy to create and maintain description on every switch manually for each VLAN.


VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) is a Cisco proprietary protocol that propagates the definition of Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN) on the whole local area network.[1] To do this, VTP carries VLAN information to all the switches in a VTP domain. VTP advertisements can be sent over ISL, 802.1q, IEEE 802.10 and LANE trunks. VTP is available on most of the Cisco Catalyst Family products.

The comparable IEEE standard in use by other manufacturers is GVRP or the more recent MVRP.


HowTo Configure VTP

Enter the configuration terminal, this enables more options to configure.

conf t
vtp mode client
vtp domain mydomain
vtp password mypassword

If you’re not sure what password is defined on the master, just go to another switch or the master itself and use this command to get it:

show vtp password

To check if VTP is running and receives the VLAN information, simply hit the following command on the terminal to show up configured VLAN’s and their description.

show vlan

To add another vlan with name, you must first enter the “vlan database” (not in conf-t) to configure it:

vlan database
vlan 123 name MyNewVLAN


HowTo configure the CAU Cluster Role

Windows Server 2012 (currently only available as a preview version) now supports “Cluster Aware Updating” (CAU). This means you only need to click on Update Cluster and the CAU-Tools takes care of updating the cluster including failing-over the services, installing updates and rebooting the servers.

Feature Description:

  • Puts each node of the cluster into node maintenance mode
  • Moves the clustered roles off the node
  • Installs the updates and any dependent updates
  • Performs a restart if necessary
  • Brings the node out of maintenance mode
  • Restores the clustered roles on the node
  • Moves to update the next node


This Feature can be used in two ways: Self Updating Mode and Remote Updating Mode. All the functionality is available together with the Windows RSAT Feature “Failover Clustering Tools”.

Self-updating mode
If you enable self-updating, it will be configured as additional Workload on the Failover Cluster and starts based on a configured schedule.

Create an additional Computer account
Before you start, you must create an additional computer account for the Cluster, lets call it “SERVER01CAU” here. This account is needed for CAU to run as Workload on the Cluster. Edit the security settings in Active Directory on this account and add the Cluster’s own Computer account as User with full rights. In my case it’s “SERVER01Win$”.

This isn’t documented yet anywhere on Microsoft’s Technet pages, but if you don’t create the AD Computer account you’ll get error messages and the configuration fails. In the Cluster’s Eventlog, you’ll then see error messages telling you that the cluster haven’t had enough rights to create an AD account.

Configuration using the GUI
To configure self-updating use the “Cluster-Aware Updating” from the Administrative Tools. If you have installed server core (recommended) you must use the PowerShell command, the GUI is not available.

Picture(1) – Cluster-Aware Updating GUI
Picture(2) – CAU Configure cluster self-updating options

Configuration using PowerShell Command
To configure self-updating using PowerShell, you can use the “Set-CauClusterRole” cmdlet. Hint: You can use another server / workstation with RSAT installed to generate the PowerShell command if you use the GUI Assistant. The PowerShell command that will configure the Cluster is displayed in the details before you click Finish.

Set-CauClusterRole -ClusterName SERVER01Win-Force -CauPluginName WindowsUpdateAgent -MaxRetriesPerNode 3 -CauPluginArguments @{ ‘IncludeRecommendedUpdates’ = ‘False’ } -StartDate “06/11/2012 03:00:00” -DaysOfWeek 127 -IntervalWeeks 1;Enable-CauClusterRole -ClusterName SERVER01Win -Force -ConfigurationName SERVER01CAU;

When you let Windows configure self-updating using both ways, GUI and PowerShell, this will install a workload on the destination Failover Cluster and runs based on the schedule provided at configuration time.

The workload is not visible on the Failover Cluster GUI, but you can display it using the following command:

Get-ClusterResource -Cluster SERVER01Win

You get a list of all resources on your Cluster where the resource “ClusterAwareUpdatingResource” is the new self-updating Workload.

PS > Get-ClusterResource -Cluster SERVER01Win | ? {$_.ResourceType -like “*Updating*”} | Ft -Auto

Name                State  OwnerGroup  ResourceType
—-                —–  ———-  ————
CAUSERVEfw8Resource Online CAUSERVEfw8 ClusterAwareUpdatingResource

Remote-updating mode
This mode does not install anything additional on the Cluster or the nodes, but needs another Server running to issue the commands or run the PowerShell scripts that trigger the Update mechanism. This third Machine is called “Update Coordinator” and only needs the CAU Tools installed (RSAT Failover Clustering Tools).

You can either use the same GUI as you see on Screenshot (2) to Apply updates and let the computer you’re using coordinate the Update installation process. Or you use the following PowerShell cmdlet:

Invoke-CauRun -ClusterName SERVER01Win -Force -CauPluginName WindowsUpdateAgent -MaxRetriesPerNode 3 -CauPluginArguments @{ ‘IncludeRecommendedUpdates’ = ‘False’ };

So because this can also be invoked using a script during the night, you have the option if you prefer to install the CAU using self-updating Cluster Feature

Fedora Notebook Installation Notes

I just wanted to have a look on another Linux distribution, so I decided to change from Mint to Fedora. This were my Installation Notes for Tools I installed on my Notebook, and what I needed to do to install them.

I found some useful tips on the following Website:

System Settings

x Tell Fedora to forward root Emails to me:
– create a file /root/.forward
– content: “” <- my emailaddress here

x Configure Desktop to show Icons:
– start “dconf-editor”
– activate show-desktop-icons in org->gnome->desktop-background

x Install basic Tools:
– patch
– wget

x Configure Swappiness
  Swappiness defines how fast Linux swap’s out Programs to swapfile.
  – nano /etc/sysctl.conf
  – add a new line with “vm.swappiness=10” (default=80)

Get CIFS Shares automatically mounted on Boot

x Edit /etc/fstab and add a line for each share:
//ip.addr/share  /mnt/share  cifs  username=user,password=pw,uid=1000,gid=1000,_netdev  0 0

x Create a startup skript
– nano /etc/init.d/after.local
– enter this skript:
#! /bin/sh
mount -a
– chmod a+x /etc/init.d/after.local

This is a list of my tools, and how to install them correctly

x Various Software
– yum erase evolution
– yum install thunderbird

x Adobe Flash Installation
– Download RPM File from Adobe Website
– yum install adobe-release-x86_64-1.0.-1.noarch.rpm
– yum install flash-plugin

x Adobe Reader Installation
  – Download “bin” File from Adobe Website (getReader)
  – mark “*.bin” File as executable
  – start bin File using su / sudo

x Remote Desktop Software
– yum install remmina
– yum install remmina-plugins-rdp

x VMware Player
– Download Player from Website
– Set “VMware-Player-4.0.3-703057.x86_64.bundle” as executable
– sudo VMware-Player-4.0.3-703057.x86_64.bundle
– sudo yum install kernel-headers kernel-devel gcc
– unpack patch vmware802fixlinux320.tar.gz to /tmp
– sudo ./
– vmplayer (erster Start)

Futher Information for Player 4.0.3 on Kernel 3.3:

x Gimp and Nikon NEF Plugin
– yum install gimp
– yum install ufraw-gimp

x VLC Player
RPMFusion must be installed to get vlc player, actual link and version is on the RPMFusion Website
– rpm -ivh
– yum install vlc
– yum install mozilla-vlc (optional)
  To remove the existing totem Media Player:
  – remove totem*

x Dropbox
– a Dropbox package is available in many distributions, but Dropbox itself recommends to download the installer from the Webpage directly.

Tools to try:
– nmon (disk activity)

Server 2012 PowerShell Commands

Proxy setzen

netsh winhttp set proxy proxy-server=”sta0394:8080″

Datei aus Internet herunterladen

$wc = New-Object System.Net.WebClient
$wc.DownloadFile($source, $destination)

Dism /get-wiminfo /wimfile::sources\install.wim

Dism /mount-wim /WimFile::\sources\install.wim /Index: /MountDir:c:\mountdir /readonly

Install GUI for Server Core

On a non-core installation, all the source files to add Roles and Features are copied to C:\Windows\winsxs where Windows automatically can access the files when you add Roles or Features. On a

Sources findet man auch in der ISO / CD im Unterordner \sources\sxs.

Install-WindowsFeature Server-Gui-Mgmt-Infra,Server-Gui-Shell –Restart –Source \\server\share\sources\sxs Install-WindowsFeature Server-Gui-Mgmt-Infra,Server-Gui-Shell –Restart

PSBASE view of Powershell Objects

Until today, I didn’t know that the PowerShell Objects are modified to a standardized view and do not contain all known methods that are available. Good thing is, it’s possible to use them anyway.


For an example, create an object using Get-WMIObject:

$obj = Get-WMIObject Win32_Service -Filter “Name=’Winmgmt'”

Now to submit the changes, there’s a method “ChangeStartMode” in place. Yes, there’s a way using Invoke-WMIMethod, but it’s a modified way. Using “PSBASE” there are some new Methods available: